Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Cancer treatment abroad

Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, which is a component of the immune system’s pathogen-fighting capabilities. In Hodgkin’s lymphoma, white blood cells called lymphocytes proliferate uncontrollably, resulting in swollen lymph nodes and body growths.

Hodgkin’s lymphoma, formerly known as Hodgkin’s disease, is one of two main types of lymphoma. The other type of lymphoma is non-lymphoma. Hodgkin’s

Hodgkin's Lymphoma Symptoms

Among the possible signs and symptoms of Hodgkin’s lymphoma are:
  • Asymptomatic lymph node enlargement in the neck, armpits, or groin.
  • Persistent fatigue
  • Fever
  • Night perspiration
  • Weight loss without effort
  • Extreme itching
  • Symptoms of lymph node pain after consuming alcohol

Hodgkin's Lymphoma Causes

Doctors are uncertain about the cause of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. They are aware that it begins when the DNA of infection-fighting white blood cells called lymphocytes undergoes changes. The DNA of a cell contains the instructions that tell it what to do.

The DNA modifications instruct the cells to proliferate rapidly and to continue to live when other cells would normally perish. Many healthy immune system cells are attracted to lymphoma cells to protect them and promote their growth. The accumulation of extra cells in the lymph nodes causes swelling and other Hodgkin’s lymphoma symptoms.

Multiple types of Hodgkin’s lymphoma exist. Your type is determined by the characteristics and behavior of the cells involved in your disease. The type of lymphoma you have influences the treatment options available to you.

Traditional Hodgkin lymphoma
The classical form of Hodgkin’s lymphoma is the most prevalent form of this disease. Reed-Sternberg cells, which are large lymphoma cells, are found in the lymph nodes of individuals diagnosed with this type.

The following are subtypes of classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma:

Nodular sclerosis Hodgkin disease is a type of lymphoma.
Variable cellularity Hodgkin disease is a type of lymphoma.
Lymphocyte-depleted Hodgkin disease is a type of lymphoma.
Hodgkin’s lymphoma abundant in lymphocytes
Predominantly lymphoid nodules Hodgkin disease is a type of lymphoma.
This much rarer form of Hodgkin’s lymphoma is characterized by lymphoma cells with an appearance known as popcorn cells. Predominantly lymphoid nodules Hodgkin’s lymphoma is typically diagnosed at an early stage and may require less intensive treatments than the disease’s classical form.

hazard factors
Included among the risk factors for Hodgkin’s lymphoma are:

Your age. Hodgkin’s lymphoma is typically diagnosed in people in their twenties and thirties, as well as those over the age of 55.
A history of lymphoma in the family. Your risk of developing Hodgkin’s lymphoma increases if you have a blood relative with the disease.
Being male. Men are marginally more likely than women to develop Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Past infection with Epstein-Barr virus. People who have had Epstein-Barr virus infections, such as infectious mononucleosis, have a higher risk of developing Hodgkin’s lymphoma than those who have not.
HIV infected. HIV-positive individuals have an increased risk of developing Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Hodgkin's Lymphoma Diagnostics

The following tests and procedures are used to diagnose Hodgkin’s lymphoma:
physical checkup.
Your physician may inquire about your symptoms and conduct physical examination. 
This may involve examining your neck, underarms, and groin for swollen lymph nodes, as well as your spleen and liver.
Blood tests.
blood sample is analyzed in laboratory to determine your general health and look for signs of cancer.
Imaging tests.
The use of imaging tests to search for Hodgkin’s lymphoma in other parts of the body. 
Tests may include X-ray, computed tomography, and positron emission tomography (PET).
method for removing lymph nodes.
Your healthcare provider may recommend lymph node biopsy to remove lymph node for laboratory testing to detect cancer.
Other lab tests will analyze the lymphoma cells for surface markers that can tell your health care team precisely what type of Hodgkin’s lymphoma you have and which treatments are most effective for your specific cancer.
method for extracting sample of bone marrow.
As part of bone marrow biopsy and aspiration, needle is inserted into the hipbone to remove sample of bone marrow. 
The sample is examined for the presence of Hodgkin’s lymphoma cells.

Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treatment

The objective of Hodgkin’s lymphoma treatment is to eradicate as many lymphoma cells as possible and induce remission. The treatments you receive depend on the type and stage of your cancer, your general health, and your personal preferences.

Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that kills lymphoma cells using chemicals. Chemotherapy drugs are able to reach nearly all parts of the body via the bloodstream. Chemotherapy drugs can be administered orally or through a vein in the arm, and sometimes both methods are used.

Standard Hodgkin’s lymphoma treatment typically commences with chemotherapy. It may be the only necessary treatment, or it may be used in conjunction with radiation therapy.

Hodgkin’s lymphoma with nodular lymphocyte predominance is frequently treated with a combination of chemotherapy, drugs that target cancer cells (targeted therapy), and radiation therapy.

Radiation treatment

To eradicate cancer cells, radiation therapy employs high-energy beams, such as X-rays and protons. During radiation therapy, you lie on a table while a large machine moves around you and directs energy beams to specific body points.

For the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, radiation can be directed at affected lymph nodes and nearby areas where the cancer may spread. Typically, it is combined with chemotherapy. Individuals with nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin’s lymphoma at an early stage may require only radiation therapy.

Transplantation of marrow

A bone marrow transplant, also known as a stem cell transplant, is a procedure used to replace diseased bone marrow with healthy stem cells that promote the growth of new bone marrow. If Hodgkin’s lymphoma recurs or fails to respond to other treatments, a bone marrow transplant may be an option.

Blood stem cells are harvested, frozen, and stored for future use during a bone marrow transplant. Next, high-dose chemotherapy and radiation therapy are administered to eliminate cancerous cells from the body. Finally, your stem cells are thawed and reintroduced into your body, where they contribute to the growth of healthy bone marrow.

Other drug treatment

Additionally, the following medications are sometimes used to treat Hodgkin’s lymphoma:

Targeted treatment.

Targeted drug therapies concentrate on specific cancer cell vulnerabilities. By inhibiting these vulnerabilities, targeted drug therapies can kill cancer cells. Hodgkin’s lymphoma with a nodular lymphocyte predominance is commonly treated with a combination of targeted therapy and chemotherapy. In certain cases, it may be a treatment option for classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma.


Immunotherapy employs the body’s immune system to combat cancer. Because cancer cells produce proteins that help them hide from immune system cells, your body’s disease-fighting immune system may not attack your cancer. Immunotherapy functions by inhibiting this process. Immunotherapy may be considered for Hodgkin’s lymphoma in certain circumstances, such as when the disease does not respond to other treatments.