Heart Attack

Heart attack causes, symptoms, complications and treatment in the best hospitals in the world

Myocardial infarction (heart attack) occurs when one or more areas of the heart muscle are deprived of oxygen. This occurs when the blood supply to the heart muscle is obstructed.


Heart Attack Symptoms

These are the most frequent signs of a heart attack. However, each individual may exhibit slightly different symptoms.

More than a few minutes of severe pressure, fullness, squeezing, pain, or discomfort in the center of the chest
Spreading pain or discomfort to the shoulders, neck, arms, or jaw
chest discomfort that worsens
Chest discomfort that does not improve with rest or nitroglycerin.
Chest pain accompanied by any of the following symptoms:
Perspiration, cool, clammy skin, or pallor
Insufficiency of breath
sickness or vomiting
Vertigo or fainting
Abnormal weakness or fatigue
Rapid or irregular pulse
Although chest pain is the most important warning sign of a heart attack, it can be mistaken for other ailments. These include heartburn, indigestion, pleurisy, pneumonia, and tenderness of the cartilage that connects the front ribs to the breastbone.

Heart Attack Causes

The obstruction is caused by the accumulation of plaque in the arteries (atherosclerosis). Plaque consists of deposits, cholesterol, and various other substances. When a plaque ruptures, a blood clot forms immediately. The actual cause of the heart attack is the clot.

If the heart’s blood and oxygen supply is cut off, heart muscle cells begin to deteriorate and die. Within 30 minutes of blockage, irreversible damage begins. The result is that oxygen-deprived heart muscle no longer functions properly.

These groups are the most vulnerable:

People with hereditary hypertension (hypertension)
People with inherited low levels of HDL cholesterol, high levels of LDL cholesterol, or high levels of triglycerides are susceptible to cardiovascular disease.
Those with a family history of cardiovascular disease. This is particularly true if the heart disease began prior to age 55.
Older men and women
Individuals with type 1 diabetes
Women who have experienced the menopause. In general, men are at risk earlier than women. After menopause, women face the same risks as men.
These groups are the most vulnerable:
Cigarette smokers
People who are under a great deal of stress tend to
Those who consume excessive alcohol
Those who lead a sedentary way of life
people who are 30% or more overweight
People who eat a diet high in saturated fat
Individuals with type 2 diabetes

Heart Attack Diagnostics

Typically, healthcare professionals diagnose heart attacks in the emergency room. 
Anyone exhibiting symptoms of heart attack should undergo physical examination that includes checking their pulse, blood oxygen levels, blood pressure, and listening to their heart and lungs.
Using the following, healthcare provider will diagnose heart attack:
The healthcare provider will inquire about your symptoms and medical history. 
They may also ask someone who was present to describe the incident.
During heart attack, the damage to heart muscle cells almost always causes cardiac troponin chemical marker to appear in the bloodstream. 
Among the most reliable methods for diagnosing heart attack, blood tests that look for this marker are among the most common
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG): This is one of the initial tests performed on patients presenting to the emergency room with heart attack symptoms.
Using ultrasound (high-frequency sound waves), an echocardiogram produces an image of the interior and exterior of the heart.
Angiogram: This test identifies regions with minimal or absent blood flow.
CT scan of the heart: This produces highly detailed image of your heart.
This test creates an image of your heart using powerful magnetic field and computer processing.
Similar to angiograms, nuclear heart scans involve the injection of radioactive dye into your blood. 
They differ from an angiogram by employing computer-assisted techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans.

Heart Attack Treatment

Typically, heart attacks are diagnosed by medical professionals in the emergency room. Everyone exhibiting symptoms of a heart attack should undergo a physical exam that includes checking their pulse, blood oxygen levels, blood pressure, and listening to their heart and lungs.

A healthcare provider will diagnose a heart attack using the following:

The medical professional will ask about your symptoms and medical history. Additionally, they may ask a witness to describe the incident.

The damage to heart muscle cells during a heart attack almost always results in the appearance of a cardiac troponin chemical marker in the bloodstream. Among the most reliable methods for diagnosing a heart attack, this blood test is one of the most prevalent.

Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG): This is one of the first tests performed on patients with heart attack symptoms who present to the emergency room.

An echocardiogram uses ultrasound (high-frequency sound waves) to produce an image of the interior and exterior of the heart.

This test identifies areas with minimal or no blood flow.

A heart CT scan generates a highly detailed image of the heart.

Using a powerful magnetic field and computer processing, this test produces an image of your heart.

Similar to angiograms, nuclear heart scans involve injecting a radioactive dye into the blood. Computer-assisted techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans distinguish them from angiograms.